Like for other plots, there are different approaches in R to make maps.
You can use “base plot” in many cases. Alternatively use levelplot,
either via the
spplot function (implemented in
raster) or via the
library(raster) p <- shapefile(system.file("external/lux.shp", package="raster")) plot(p)
n <- length(p) plot(p, col=rainbow(n))
One colour per region (NAME_1)
u <- unique(p$NAME_1) u ##  "Diekirch" "Grevenmacher" "Luxembourg" m <- match(p$NAME_1, u) plot(p, col=rainbow(n)[m]) text(p, 'NAME_2', cex=.75, halo=TRUE)
library(raster) b <- brick(system.file("external/rlogo.grd", package="raster")) r <- raster(p, res=0.01 ) values(r) <- 1:ncell(r) r <- mask(r, p)
Several generic functions have been implemented for Raster* objects to
create maps and other plot types. Use ‘plot’ to create a map of a
Raster* object. When plot is used with a
RasterLayer, it calls the
function ‘rasterImage’ (but, by default, adds a legend; using code from
fields::image.plot). It is also possible to directly call
You can zoom in using ‘zoom’ and clicking on the map twice (to indicate
where to zoom to). With
click it is possible to interactively query
a Raster* object by clicking once or several times on a map plot.
After plotting a
RasterLayer you can add vector type spatial data
(points, lines, polygons). You can do this with functions points, lines,
polygons if you are using the basic R data structures or plot(object,
add=TRUE) if you are using Spatial* objects as defined in the sp
package. When plot is used with a multi-layer Raster* object, all
layers are plotted (up to 16), unless the layers desired are indicated
with an additional argument.
plot(r) plot(p, add=TRUE)
image does not provide a legend and that can be advantageous in some
image(r) plot(p, add=TRUE)
Multi-layer Raster objects can be plotted as individual layers
They can also be combined into a single image, by assigning individual layers to one of the three color channels (red, green and blue):
plotRGB(b, r=1, g=2, b=3)
You can also plot
Raster* objects with spplot.
bounds <- list("sp.polygons", p) spplot(r, sp.layout=bounds)
rasterVis package has several other
lattice based plotting
Raster* objects. The
rasterVis package also
facilitates creating a map from a
RasterLayer with the
You can also use the a number of other plotting functions with a
raster object as argument, including
density. See the help files for more info.
From Google and others...
Get a google map.
library(dismo) g <- gmap("Belgium")
brus <- geocode('Brussels, Belgium') merc <- Mercator(brus[, c('longitude', 'latitude')]) points(merc, pch='*', col='red', cex=5)